Archive for August 21st, 2011

It’s Math, Why Journal?

Sunday, August 21st, 2011

It’s Math, Why Journal?

Communication is an essential part of mathematics and mathematics education. Mathematics is so often conveyed in symbols that oral and written communication about mathematical ideas is not always recognized as important.

Students do not necessarily write or talk about mathematics naturally; teachers need to help them learn how to do so (Cobb, Wood, and Yackel 1994).

Journals provide a way of sharing ideas and clarifying understanding. Through written and oral communication, ideas become objects of reflection, refinement, discussion, and amendment. The communication process also helps build meaning and permanence for ideas. When students are challenged to think and reason about mathematics and to communicate the results of their thinking to others orally or in writing, they learn to be clear and convincing.

Journaling in the Math Classroom supports the NCTM Process  Standards for School Mathematics. These Process Standards highlight ways of acquiring content knowledge and include:

  • Problem Solving
  • Communication
  • Connections
  • Reasoning and Proof
  • Representations

Journal Uses

The ways you use math journals will depend on your purposes, preferences, and the particular age and needs of your students. Some ideas for journal use include:

  • Assessment: Formative and Summative
  • Warm Ups, Starters, Spiral Review
  • Class Notes
  • Problem Solving and Justification
  • Projects
  • Class Assignments/Math Lab Investigations
  • Vocabulary Strategies and Activities
  • Reflection/Learning Log: What did you learn? What are you not sure about? What questions do you have?
  • Models/Foldables

Journals have the potential to grow to be motivational tools for students. Not only do they supply evidence of student learning over time, they also become a useful reference in student discussion, class review, and as a study guide. When students are given the opportunity to record information in a way that is meaningful for them, the learning is “owned” and solidified.

To get students started in their writing it is often helpful to provide a sentence starter or stem.  For ELL students this strategy is also helpful in learning the English language.

Question Prompts and Sentence Starters

  • Explain what is most important to understand about ___________.
  • Find something that you learned today that is similar to something

you already knew. Write about these similarities.

  • How would you use what you learned today in your life?
  • What questions are still unanswered at the end of this week?
  • This is how I used math this week (outside of school):
  • Describe any discoveries you made about mathematics today, this week, month, or year.
  • What patterns do you notice in ____________.
  • Make a list of objects or figures in the room which have _____.

How can you tell?

  • Write a letter to your teacher explaining what you understand about

________, and what is still giving you trouble.

  • Describe practical uses for ____________.

Prompts to use for Problem-Solving

  • When I see a word problem, the first thing I do is ____. Then I ____.
  • The most important part of solving a problem is____________.
  • Describe the process you undertook to solve this problem.
  • I knew I was right when____________.
  • Tips I would give a friend to solve this problem are ___, ___, ___…
  • Could you have found the answer by doing something different? What?
  • What strategy did you use to solve this problem and why?
  • What would happen if you missed a step? Why?
  • What other strategies could you use to solve this problem?

Responding to What Students Write

Don’t feel you have to give individual comments on all entries!  Try to learn more about individual students by focusing on the mathematics in the task. Indicate your interest in how they think and reason, and offer suggestions for further consideration. Here are some things to take into account as you read:

  • Is the answer correct?
  • Does the student include reasoning that supports the solution?
  • If computation is required, does the student use an efficient method and/or mental math?
  • Does the solution indicate the use of estimation and reasonableness?
  • What would you still like to know about the child’s thinking or response, even after evaluating the entry?
  • How will you follow up?

Students who have opportunities, encouragement, and support for speaking, writing, reading, and listening in mathematics classes reap dual benefits: they communicate to learn mathematics, and they learn to communicate mathematically.

 

student work  Student Work  Student Work  Student Work  Student Work

English Language Arts – Strategies for Reading and Writing Notebooks

Sunday, August 21st, 2011

Starting the Year Building Stamina: Strategies for Reading and Writing Notebooks

Some teachers call them journals; others call them daybooks. No matter what we call them, reading and writing notebooks are essential in the English language arts classroom. They not only provide a safe place for students to express themselves and explore ideas, but they also lend themselves well to creating a place where students may gain stamina in reading and writing. With the demands of the new STAAR test, stamina is essential for students to be able to read and create more than one piece in more than one genre.

Reading Notebook Strategy 1: Reread to Lift a Line

Purpose: Show students the value of “second draft reading” or rereading as a helpful technique to understand a text. As readers read the text the first time, they can miss important details.  Having some things already learned in mind frees readers to pay attention to things they have missed the first time through.

How: Use a common text (picture book, essay, novel, etc.) and model the rereading process. Ask students to find a part of the text they missed in their first reading and copy a line of the text in their Readers’ Notebooks. Then students write about how that part or line helps them make more meaning from the text.

Next Steps: Students may use their lines when analyzing and practicing various sentence structures during a writing component.

(Bucker, 2009)

Reading Notebook Strategy 2: Reader’s Sketchbook

Purpose: Illustrate to students that by combining images and words, the chances of remembering and understanding are greater.  Artists like Leonardo da Vinci thought in pictures. Cartoonists blend pictures and words to communicate their ideas more effectively.

Sketchbooks are the backroom of the artist’s mind, the place where they practice, rehearse, and experiment –where they think. It is like a journal except you use images.

How:  Model the following steps with students:

  1. List chapter title or number.
  2. Write a summary of the chapter or section you read.
  3. Create a drawing of events related to the heart of the chapter. The drawing must contain specific details from the chapter to show that you read it closely. The drawing should represent something in the text, not just summarize it.
  4. Discuss what the chapter means, what matters most, and why you think that; provide specific examples or details to support your assertion(s). If possible and appropriate, connect your observations to your own life or ideas.
  5. Include quotation(s) that relates to the drawing or connects to what you read.
  6. Create a discussion question(s) you could use to participate in a small or full class discussion.

 

Next Steps: Students may adapt this strategy when creating rough drafts of various types of writing genres throughout the year.

(Burke, 2008)

Writing Notebook Strategy 1: Quick Write-A Place in Time

Purpose: Provide students with an opportunity to create freely for a specified small number of minutes. Quick Writes are playful and not graded for correctness.

How: Ask students to remember a place from their childhood that mattered to them and make a list of specific details they remember about it. Students may also sketch. Create your own Quick Write and share with students.

Next Steps: Students may return to their Quick Write to look for places where they have more to say in order to turn the Quick Write into a topic for writing.

(Kittle, 2008)

Writing Notebook Strategy 2: Mapping the Text

Purpose: To provide students an opportunity to combine new knowledge (difficult text) with prior knowledge (images) in order to think critically about, understand, and remember the text.

How: Ask students to create a “visual map” of the text that contains the following elements:

  • symbols that represent key parts of the text
  • “road signs” to guide the viewer where to go (e.g., slow down at a difficult part of the text)
  • emblems from the text that the reader should consider as important to his/her understanding of the text
  • specific language from the text within the map
  • at least one direct quote from the original text
  • an entry that should leave the viewer with a clear sense of the text as well as a sense of direction and a question to consider

 

Next Steps: Students may use this strategy during the revision stage of writing. They may map their own text as a way to ensure full development of a topic.

(Brannon, Griffin, & Haag, 2008)

 

References

Brannon, L., Griffin, S., & Haag, K. e. (2008). Thinking out loud on paper. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Bucker, A. (2009). Notebook connections. Portland: Stenhouse.

Burke, J. (2008). The English teacher’s companion guide: A complete guide to classroom, curriculum, and the profession (3rd Edition ed.). Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Kittle, P. (2008). Write beside them: Risk, voice, and clarity in high school writing. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Science Notebooks

Sunday, August 21st, 2011


Science Notebooks: Tools to get students thinking and writing like a scientist

They were present when man discovered antibiotics, when the first light bulb was lit and have helped in the discovery of the structure of DNA.  They have been to the moon, all continents and the bottom of the ocean.  They allow us a glimpse of what science greats such as Einstein, Darwin, and Bohr were thinking as they observed the world, reflected on nature and conducted experiments.  That of Marie Curie’s is still so radioactive that it is not safe to handle.  They can serve as an integral part of the science classroom for the purposes of observation, reflection, note taking, problem solving, mind mapping, and formative assessment.

Science notebooks are now a required part of the science curriculum in Texas (TEKS K.4A, 1.4A, 2.4A, 3.4A, 4.4A, 5.4A, 6.4A, 7.4A, 8.4A, Biology 2.F, Chemistry 2.I and Physics 2.K) and can serve as a very powerful learning tool in the classroom.  However, they require pre-thinking and planning on the part of the teacher to be effective.  This article will provide some suggestions and questions to get teachers started on using notebooks and journals in the science classroom.  We have grouped items into two categories: Notebook Management, which covers the more practical, nitty-gritty aspects of notebooks; and Notebooks as Learning Tools, which will get teachers started in utilizing notebooks as an integral part of their students’ learning.

One of the most important things to keep in mind is that this is the STUDENT’S notebook, not yours’.  As a teacher you will need to provide guidance, modeling, and expectations for notebook use, but the more ownership students feel, the more powerful the learning.  Teachers must find a balance between their need for control and the students’ need for autonomy and personalization.

Notebook Management

1.       What Type of Notebook to Use?

The use of spirals versus composition books is a debate that will likely continue until paper is completely replaced by a digital medium.  Composition books have the advantages of pages not being easily ripped out and feeling more “official” compared to spirals.  Spirals do offer greater surface area but do not stand up to as much abuse.  Either way you can make it work.

2.       Setting up the Notebook

Most notebooks have the following organizational elements:

  • Decorated front cover with student name, subject, and teacher name.
  • Title page with student name, teacher name, and school so the notebook can be returned if lost.  Many teachers also have students decorate this page.
  • Table of contents with title, page, and date.  If you will be using one table of contents for the entire year, leave several blank pages at the start of the notebook. Some teachers prefer to do this by unit throughout the book.
  • Page numbers.  Students should number the pages on an outer corner.  Secondary typically numbers the entire notebook at the beginning of the year while early elementary may number a few pages each week as students learn their numbers.  Some teachers require all students to be on the same page at the same time, while others allow students the freedom to write larger, insert notes taken from outside sources, or include diagrams.
  • The front versus back debate.  Teachers should also decide if they want students to write on both the front and back of the pages.  Some teachers reserve the backs of the page for later reflections, teacher comments, etc.  These items could also be added on sticky notes.
  • Extras:  Pockets, flip out information sheets, ribbons as page markers and an assortment of other items can also be added either during initial set up or as needed.

Note for first time notebook users:   Keep the set-up simple for the first year or two until you have mastered the basics and feel successful using notebooks.  More complex features can be added as your comfort level increases.

Notebooks as Learning Tools

1.       Entry Types

Notebooks can include many different types of entries: observations, questions, reflections, data tables, scientific drawings (or non-scientific ones for that matter), graphical organizers, notes, creative and expository writing, practice problems, graphs, inserts such as Dinah Zike’s Foldables®, and real objects such as leaves and soil samples (minus the bugs and water).  Anything that can be done on a regular sheet of notebook paper or a worksheet can be done in a science notebook.  If you absolutely must use them, worksheets themselves can be reduced during copying or folded and glued into the notebook.

Tip: Glue works better than glue sticks for holding power and glue is more environmentally friendly.

2.       Differentiation and Scaffolding Support

Sentence stems and prompts can be tailored to fit the needs of individuals or groups of students.  Using sentence stems and engaging prompts increases the quality of response from students.

Rubrics and expectations can also be individualized to ensure students are appropriately challenged.

Templates, stems, teacher created data tables, and more can also be provided initially and then given less frequently as students gain mastery.

Science notebooks also promote English Language Learners to utilize new vocabulary whether it is by labeling a diagram or answering a prompt.  Learning strategies such as using prior knowledge to learn new terms, internalizing language, and distinguishing between formal and informal English allow students to succeed not only in the classroom but also in life.  Strategies utilizing notebooks can also be structured so that students are participating in all four domains of language development: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

3.       Cross-curricular Integration

Incorporating reading and writing tasks into science notebooks provides for authentic integration of literacy strategies into science.  Discussing with peers enables students to develop academic language and reflect on their own learning and understanding.

Integrating mathematics concepts and skills into science notebooks develops numerical fluency and increases science literacy with regards to measurement, graphing skills, and problem solving.

The College and Career Readiness Standards also include literacy and emphasize the importance of scientific reading and presentation of scientific and technical information to success in college or a post-secondary career.  Specific CCRS to note include: Science IE1, IIIA1, IIIB1, IIIB3-4, IIIC1, and Cross-Disciplinary Standards IA1-2, IB1-4, IC1, ID1, IIB1-3, IID1-3.

4.       First Week of School Suggestions

The first week of school offers numerous notebook entry opportunities ranging from, “What does a scientist look like?” prompting primary students’ discussion and “Safety and Equipment 101” emphasizing awareness and lab expectations, to an initial “familiar observation entry” allowing students to experience and practice different entry types as well as understand expectations for their notebook use.  It is best to use something familiar to the students for this first investigation-based entry. This allows the lesson focus to remain about their notebook work and the purpose and usefulness of notebooks, rather than any new or specific content. As classroom teachers model their expectations and entry types, students are able to understand and practice entry types.

A familiar object entry can be based on literally anything, such as a hand lens, key, or even an apple. Students observe the object, record findings through technical drawings and words, add any connections they may have, and more.  Working through each of their senses, as appropriate, is a common approach for primary students. This initial observation entry is a great time to authentically integrate safety as well as classroom and investigation expectations for all elementary-aged students.

Secondary teachers may want to consider a descriptive investigation to serve as in introduction to notebook expectations and a review of scientific processes.  Observing behavior in animals, performing a simple physics lab, or making observations about a chemical reaction can stimulate conversations about the nature of science and how notebooks will be utilized, and allow the teacher time to observe students’ skills and level of sophistication in their entries.  While feedback should be provided and a completion grade can be given for this work, teachers might want to refrain from formally grading notebook entries until students are more comfortable with the expectations.

Note:  An example of a 1st week with science notebooks can be found on page 12 of Science Notebooks: Writing About Inquiry (Campbell and Fulton).

Next Steps

Ready to get started?  Here are a few suggestions for next steps.  Head to the store and buy yourself a notebook or two of the type you will be asking students to use and start planning out the notebook components you will require of students. Determine what supplies you will need for students to add entries to their notebooks (scissors, glue, colored pencils, graph paper cut into fourths, etc.).  Spend some time working with the other science teachers at your campus or in your district to discuss common elements across classrooms and grades.  Modify any syllabi or letters to parents to include information about science notebook expectations.  Decide how notebooks will be graded and write rubrics as needed.  Start planning the first week of instruction and incorporate notebooks into as many of the activities as you can.  No matter your level of implementation of science notebooks, don’t be afraid to try new things.  And remember:  record your successes, unsuccessful attempts, and reattempts in a notebook.

Sample Student Work

Suggested Books

Campbell, B. & Fulton, L. (2003).  science notebooks: writing about inquiry.  Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Fulwiler, B. R. (2007).  writing in science: how to scaffold instruction to support learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Klentschy, M. P. (2008).  using science notebooks in elementary classrooms.  Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association. Out of print.

Klentschy, M. P. (2010).  using science notebooks in middle school.  Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association. Out of print.

Maracarelli, K. (2010). teaching science with interactive notebooks.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Norton-Meier, L., Hand, B., Hockenberry, L. & Wise, K. (2008).  questions, claims, and evidence: the important place of argument in children’s science writing.  Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association.
Online Resources

Title Description URL (to embed behind title)
Pflugerville ISD Pfugerville ISD’s collection of resources related to science notebooks. http://www.pflugervilleisd.net/curriculum/science/ScienceNotebooks.cfm
Science Notebook Essentials Article from the NSTA journal Science and Children on effective notebook components. http://ebecri.org/files/media/Science%20Notebook%20Essentials%20by%20Klentschy.pdf
Science Notebooks In K-12 Classrooms Useful site with examples of student work, templates and information about different types of notebooks. http://www.sciencenotebooks.org/
5 Good Reasons to Use Science Notebooks Article from the NSTA Journal Science and Children highlighting one school’s implementation of science notebooks. http://ebecri.org/files/media/5%20Good%20Reasons%20to%20Use%20Notebooks.pdf

New TEKS for Social Studies

Sunday, August 21st, 2011

New TEKS for Social Studies

The beginning of the 2011-2012 school year marks the official implementation year of the new Social Studies TEKS approved by the State Board of Education.  The Social Studies program consists of elementary, middle school and high school courses.  Elementary grades learn about various communities, Texas history and United States history.  Middle school grades address contemporary world cultures, Texas history, and United States history from early colonial period through Reconstruction.  The high school courses, which may be taught in any order, are United States History Studies Since 1877, World History Studies, World Geography Studies, United States Government, and Economics.  Social Studies additionally has four electives that can be offered in high school: Psychology, Sociology, Special Topics in Social Studies, and Social Studies Research Methods.

For some areas the change is minimal.  For example, the grade 8 US History TEKS do have greater specificity and rigor changes, but overall only experienced the addition of one new student expectation.  The high school Economics with emphasis on Free Enterprise System and its Benefits course, on the other “invisible” hand, has been altered from its previous form.  The course is now characterized by three Social Studies strands (Economics, Financial Literacy, Social Studies Skills) instead of the previous eight, and has twenty-one new student expectations.  Other courses such as Social Studies Grade 2, US History, and World History also experienced a significant increase in the number of student expectations.  As you plan for the upcoming school year, take the time to examine the changes associated with the courses you are preparing for.  Pay close attention to the changes in the introduction to each course.  Changes include statements about “including” (reference content that must be mastered) and “such as” (reference content that is intended as possible illustrative examples), the U.S. free enterprise system, constitutional republic, Celebrate Freedom Week, and evaluating the ideals of the founding documents.

When examining the new TEKS, pay close attention to the verb identification and content specificity in each individual Student Expectation.  Carefully study the Student Expectation to evaluate the cognitive level that is expected of the student.  The following examples may provide greater clarity:

 

Social Studies, Grade 2: 2(8) Geography (C) identify ways people can conserve and replenish natural resources.

 

According to Bloom’s Taxonomy, the verb identify would be considered lower level cognitive application for the second grade student.  Remarkably, the term natural resource doesn’t actually appear for the first time in Grade 2.  It first appears in Kindergarten, continues in Grade 1, and repeats in successive grade levels and courses.  By studying the content specificity over time, we can see how material builds in early grades to provide a foundation for students at advanced grade levels. An example of this vertical progression can be seen in high school World Geography as students are expected to:

 

World Geography Studies: Geography 8(C) evaluate the economic and political relationships between settlements and the environment, including sustainable development and renewable/non-renewable resources. 

 

The verb in this Student Expectation is requiring students to evaluate, thus requiring students to think critically about the information they are learning.  Because greater specificity is not provided to the teacher on exact settlements, you have the freedom to choose from various resources and examples to accomplish this over the school year.

Social Studies teachers will need to apply significant time to become familiar with the changes in the specific subjects that you teach.  This includes examining the increased or decreased level of rigor pertaining to the Student Expectations, newly added historical individuals, and applied content changes.

Teachers should re-examine units and lessons taught from the previous years and consider the following:

  1. How will I restructure my pace and sequencing this year?
  2. How did the new changes impact the units and lessons I taught last year?
  3. Are some of my lessons obsolete because they don’t necessarily match with the new TEKS?
  4. How will I change my lessons to meet the new expectations?
  5. What new resources will I need to meet the requirements of the new TEKS?

Although it may be easier to revert to “the way we have always done it,” Social Studies teachers are responsible for incorporating the new changes this school year. The change in the state Social Studies TEKS should be seen as a positive opportunity for all educators to start fresh and reevaluate the lessons taught and learned in the classroom.

 

 

Technology – New TEKS for the 2012-2013 School Year

Sunday, August 21st, 2011

Technology Applications TEKS – New TEKS Ready for the 2012-2013 School Year

The Integration of Technology Applications TEKS (Chapter 126, Subchapters A – D) is required by Texas law. In grades K-12, it is common for this to be the shared responsibility of the core and enrichment area teachers.   The TA TEKS are a framework for curriculum that should be added to your written curriculum and included in best instructional practices.

In order for teachers to be successful, considerable professional development is needed to assist in authentic integration, documentation, and assessment of technology applications TEKS.

The TA TEKS have been significantly updated. It can be considered a re-write, not just an update. The updates are reflected in grades K-8.  Additionally, high school course choices are impacted.  School Year 2011-2012 is the year to familiarize staff with the new standards and prepare for the required implementation in school year 2012.  Additionally, Proclamation 2014 and the Instructional Materials Allotment approach to acquiring textbooks and instructional materials plays a significant role in how resources will be selected and purchased for the new TA TEKS.

CHANGES

For all grade levels:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements and the Associated Student Expectations are:
    • More challenging
    • Appropriate to this generation of learners
    • Generic enough to scale and shift with technology changes over time
    • Specific enough to allow for accountability

This chart is an overview of the changes from the 1998 standards and the 2011 standards

  Technology Application TEKS 1998-2010

1998 Standards

 

Technology Application TEKS 2011-?

New Standards

 

Strands Original Four Strands

Foundations, Information Acquisition, Solving Problems, Communication

 

6 New Strands

Technology Operations and Concepts, Digital Citizenship, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Research and Information Fluency, Communication and Collaboration, Creativity and Innovation

Middle School Changes in bundling at Middle School

Subchapter B 126.12

 

Grades 6-7-8 Bundled

Middle School is now Subchapter
 B 126.14, 126.15, 126.16 Middle School

Now separate by grade, creating more clarity in responsibilities for grade level teachers

High School Changes in Courses at High School

Subchapter C

High School originally included: 7 Courses + Independent Study

Computer Science 1, Computer Science 2, Desktop Publishing, Digital Graphics and Animation, Multimedia, Video Technology, Web Mastering, Independent Study In Tech Apps

ONE CREDIT REQUIRED FOR GRADUTION

 

Subchapter C, High School – Updated

Significant changes in Student Expectations

New Courses Authorized + Independent Study (BOLD)

Fundamentals of Computer Science, Computer Science 1, Computer Science 2, Computer Science 3, Digital Forensics, Discrete Mathematics, Game Programming and Design, Mobile Application Development, Robotics Programming and Design, Digital Design and Media Production, Digital Art and Animation, 3-D Modeling and Animation, Digital Communications in the 21st Century, Digital Video and Audio Design, Web Communications, Web Design, Web Game Development, Independent Study in Tech Apps, Independent Study in Evolving/Emerging Technologies

Subchapter D, High School

Other Technology Courses

Advanced Placement in Computer Science, International Baccalaureate (IB) Standard, International Baccalaureate (IB) High

NO CREDIT REQUIRED FOR GRADUTION

 
This year, school systems can begin to form local PLCs and committees to discuss:

  1. Course Catalogs  for High School Courses (perhaps Middle School as well)
  2. Curriculum/Technology Integration
  3. Professional Development
  4. Who will participate in reviewing instructional materials