Posts Tagged ‘World History’

Strategic Note-Taking in Secondary Content Classrooms

Thursday, January 24th, 2013

Author: Tonia Miller,  Education Specialist, ESL Instructional Coach

Perhaps when many of us were in high school, or even college, we learned to take notes out of sheer necessity. We were lucky if the teacher paused for a moment to write a word or two on the chalk board. However, this is not the case for students in today’s classrooms. Luckily for them, 21st century learners have grown up in more student-centered environments, where oftentimes technology is used as an interactive tool for discovery learning. Given this, many students in secondary schools do not perceive note-taking skills as fundamental to their success in content area classes.

 

Why Should I Take Notes?

Contrary to student perception, research shows that note-taking skills are still necessary both to survive and excel in today’s classroom. Note-taking serves two very important functions for learners: 1) external storage of information, and 2) cognitive encoding of information (Boyle, 2011). While it is obvious to most students that note-taking is a way to keep record of important information they might forget, few students realize the power the act of writing notes has to jump-start the cognitive processing of information in their brains. While note-taking, students begin to learn and memorize content. Additionally, students will retain and recall more when notes are self-generated. Ultimately, the combination of both functions makes note-taking a critical component of successful learning. For the purposes of this article, we will focus on one researched-based strategy intended to be used during lectures: strategic note-taking (SN).

 

Strategic Note-Taking

The intention of strategic note-taking is to help students filter and organize incoming information during lectures so that it is converted into notes that can be comprehended and reviewed at a later time. The strategy also focuses on inciting students to mentally process and record information while listening. Strategic note-taking paper accompanies the strategy to prompt students to make notes through five main metacognitive cues: link prior knowledge, cluster main ideas, summarize like ideas, recognize key vocabulary, and review main lecture points (Boyle, 2011).

To help students remember all of the skills necessary for SN, the first letter mnemonic device CUES is used. See an abbreviated version of the SN paper and for a description of what students are doing at each step of CUES below:

 

 

 

 

Some of the findings of a study of SN show that, in contrast to students using traditional note-taking, students using strategic note-taking recorded more total lecture points as well as twice as many words, had greater long-term recall, and performed better on tests (Boyle, 2012, Boyle, 2010).

 

How Do I Implement Strategic Note-Taking?

Students will need to be explicitly taught SN, just as they would any other new content-related skill.  Providing the student with a description of the strategy, in addition to why they are being asked to develop this skill, is a good place to start. See the following list for some teacher tips for implementation of strategic note-taking:

  • Prior to the lecture, make your own set of strategic notes as “model notes”.
  • Use your “model notes” during the lecture to stay on topic.
  • Stress important lecture content by repeating or restating.
  • Slow down the pace of the lesson.
  • Use purposeful pause procedures (e.g., a long pause should indicate students need to record what was just said).
  • Categorize or provide a title for an upcoming list of items.
  • Monitor students’ usage of the strategy.
  • Teach students to abbreviate.
  • Teach students to identify main points & summarize big ideas.
  • Provide emphasis cues (e.g., “It is important to remember that . . .).
  • Provide organization cues (e.g., “the four main types of a cloud are . . .).
  • Use nonverbal cues such as gestures to provide emphasis.
  • Write important notes & vocabulary on the board.
  • Provide students time at the end of class to review notes.
  • Allow students to compare their notes to the “model notes”.
  • Encourage students to share notes with a partner and fill in any missing information.
  • Evaluate students’ notes (self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment).
  • Gradually increase the pace of lecture as students become more competent.

(Boyle, 2012, Boyle, 2011, & Boyle, 2010)

 

How do I Assess Students’ Note-Taking Skills?

Ongoing assessment of students’ note-taking skills is an important part of both skill development and learner accountability. Just as with academic skills, it is important to find individual student gaps in note-taking skills. The figure below depicts a form that has been used as a formative assessment of students’ note-taking skills as compared to teachers’  “model notes.”

 

 

 

 

The key to ongoing assessment of note-taking is to show students that it is a cyclical, reflective process intended to help develop metacognitive study skills so that they may effectively monitor their own learning.

 

How Do I Justify the Time Required to Teach Note-Taking?

Note-taking falls under the larger umbrella of study skills necessary for students to be successful learners, and techniques, like strategic note-taking, can be incorporated into content-area curriculum. Although teachers may feel pressed to primarily lecture in order to cover all necessary content, it is important to include other activities (i.e., hands-on activities, peer conversations and various other student demonstrations of understanding) to reinforce concepts from lectures. However, note-taking is a valuable skill that becomes essential for students as they take on greater responsibility for their own learning. Consequently, the time invested by teachers initially in teaching students note-taking skills pays off by propelling students towards the ultimate goal:  to be both college and career-ready citizens.

References (APA)

Boyle, J. R. (2012). Note-Taking and Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities: Challenges and Solutions. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 27(2), 90-101.

BOYLE, J. R. (2011). THINKING STRATEGICALLY TO RECORD NOTES IN CONTENT CLASSES. American Secondary Education, 40(1), 51-66.

Boyle, J. R. (2010). Strategic Note-Taking for Middle-School Students with Learning Disabilities in Science Classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33(2), 93-109.

It’s Your Year, World History!

Friday, November 2nd, 2012

Author: Rachel Hernandez – Social Studies Education Specialist

Tags: World History, Social Studies, STAAR

According to the 2012 STAAR Summary Reports released by TEA, 28,625 students took the World History End-of-Course assessment last year.  Since there is no set rule on how schools establish their course matriculation in Social Studies, all End-of-Course tests were operational in May of 2012.  Most schools in Texas have freshmen starting in World Geography, World History sophomore year, U.S. History junior year, and Government/Economics rounding out senior year.  As expected, World Geography accounted for the largest amount of Social Studies test takers with 320,966 students.  Now that last year’s freshmen have the World Geography End-of-Course under their belt, 2013 is the true year for World History.  Preparation is in order for World History teachers and students.

Now that we are refocused with a few cheerful thoughts, let’s take a look at what we know.  With the 2010 Social Studies TEKS adoption, the World History Studies course was restructured into six time periods that serve as the framework and organization: 8000 BC-500 BC (Development of River Valley Civilizations); 500 BC-AD 600 (Classical Era); 600-1450 (Post-Classical Era); 1450-1750 (Connecting Hemispheres); 1750-1914 (Age of Revolutions); and 1914-Present (20th Century to the Present).  Additionally, the World History course has changed in the number of historical individuals.  The course went from 22 historical individuals in the old standards to 50 individuals in the 2010 standards. Groups such as Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo and Chinese student protestors in Tiananmen Square were also added.

Searching for Rigor

Monday, February 13th, 2012

Rigor.  This word may be a topic of conversation that many of you are avoiding right now.  This may be related to the curricular chaos you have experienced this year with the increased numbers of historical figures and more standards in a compacted instructional pacing.   With the coming of the STAAR assessment in May, you may be more concerned with getting through the tremendous amount of information with the students rather than challenging them to think critically.  In the book Best Practice: New Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s Schools (1998), authors Daniels, Hyde, and Zemelman believe, “Complete ‘coverage’ in social studies inevitably results in superficial and unengaging teaching, like painting a room—covering plenty of square feet but only one-thousandth of an inch thick.”  Moreover, they state, “Students of social studies need regular opportunities to investigate topics in depth” (p. 139).  A common mistake is to equate in-depth for copious amounts of time, but this doesn’t have to be the case.  A well-planned Socratic questioning session with students may do more for them than taking PowerPoint notes for half of the class period.  As you search for rigor, you really have to look from within and evaluate what you are doing on a daily basis.  This search should start first by reflecting upon where rigor can be found in the standards.

Although this standard certainly looks like a Science student expectation, it is found in all K-12 Social Studies courses: Use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

So how exactly does it translate to the classroom when you have no new resources?  One recommendation is to be intentional.  Look for free resources that will help to stimulate problem-solving issues to pose to your students.  Just a few weeks ago I caught a 10 minute segment on PBS NEWSHOUR that led to me the website for the Center for Investigative Reporting. They are undergoing a yearlong examination of the global food supply and the world’s growing population in the series, Food for 9 Billion. World Geography students can use the audio and video segments to investigate the countries being showcased and use the website to further examine and compare world food statistics.  This is a great opportunity for them to discuss the problems that will arise with global population growth.  Are there solutions to these problems?  If so, what could be effective solutions?  This kind of problem-solving allows students to evaluate the issues on their own and make decisions based on what they read, hear, and view.  To really spark interest, try connecting the in-class discussion with Hans Rosling’s 5-minute population exploration, The Joy of Stats: 200 Countries, 200 Years.

Here’s another student expectation that is ubiquitous in K-12 Social Studies, but worded differently throughout the various grades: Explain the difference between primary and secondary sources and examine those sources to analyze frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

This may be one of the easiest to integrate for rigor, but is often replaced by the textbook.  The argument may be, “Hey, the textbook is a secondary source.”  Yes, it is, but the textbook is one of many resources that should be used in the classroom.  Here’s an example of a primary and secondary source pairing that could enrich student learning in the World History classroom.

Examining Primary Sources

SEP TESEP TE

Ibn Battuta’s 1348 account of the Black Death

I went to Horns and found that the plague had already struck there; about 300 persons died on the day of my arrival. I went to Damascus and arrived on a Thursday; the people had been fasting for three days…. The number of deaths among them had risen to 2400 a day…. Then we went to Gaza and found most of it deserted because of the number that had died…. The qadi told me that only a quarter of the 80 notaries there were left and that the number of deaths had risen to 1100 a day…. Then I went to Cairo and was told that during the plague the number of deaths rose to 21,000 a day. I found that all the shaykhs I had known were dead. May God Most High have mercy upon them!

1350 account of the plague in Scotland 

In 1350, there was a great pestilence and mortality of men in the kingdom of Scotland, and this pestilence also raged for many years before and after in various parts of the world. So great a plague has never been heard of from the beginning of the world to the present day, or been recorded in books. For this plague vented its spite so thoroughly that fully a third of the human race was killed. At God’s command, moreover, the damage was done by an extraordinary and novel form of death. Those who fell sick of a kind of gross swelling of the flesh lasted for barely two days. This sickness befell people everywhere, but especially the middling and lower classes, rarely the great. It generated such horror that children did not dare to visit their dying parents, nor parents their children, but fled for fear of contagion as if from leprosy or a serpent.

                                                                          John of Fordun (d.1384), Scotichronicon

The students should be reading, viewing, and examining various sources as an on-going process. Leading students through primary and secondary source analysis can open up interest and pique curiosity to people’s lives long ago. In this case, the secondary source map can be used to make ties and provide a spatial understanding of the spread of the Black Death. You can also make an ephemeral correlation to issues and pandemics today. The Center for Disease Control has a brief plague page that has simplified information on the transition and distribution of plague in our modern world.

The last student expectation on rigor exploration has different verbiage at various grades, but is still present throughout Social Studies: Create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies based on research.

For this standard, the rigor is in what the students are producing and creating. You should provide opportunities for students to research, evaluate, and reflect on the information they have learned. A concrete example is this leader report card with Napoleon Bonaparte as a model example. The assignment would be to have students evaluate Bonaparte’s leadership and impact based on the reforms made under his authority. The student research would be focused on the French leader’s time in power and overall impact.

Now that you have seen a few examples of rigor in the Social Studies process skills, consider the following quote from a recently published article from Education Service Center Region 20 entitled, “How do you Identify Rigor in the Classroom?”  The authors state, “Rigor is evidenced through the observation of a number of essential components of rigor: content acquisition, critical thinking, relevance, integration, application of concepts, long term retention, and student ownership of learning.”  As a teacher, none of this can happen if you are not actively seeking new ways of reaching your students by pairing both content and rigor.  Yes, this takes time, intentional planning, and firmly rooting yourself in your content standards, but the rigor-reward will be great.

 *If you are looking for primary sources related workshops, ESC Region XIII will be hosting two workshops this spring – Teaching with Primary Sources and Document Based Questions for the Social Studies Classroom.  Go to Region XIII e-campus for more information.  (Workshop ID: SP122647, SP1223152)

a humorous look at what rigor is (not) in the Social Studies classroom, check out the following link

 

References

Bullis, D. MacDonald, N. (2000). The longest hajj: The journeys of Ibn Battuta, Part 3: From traveler to memoirist – China, Mali, and Home. Saudi Aramco World, 51, No. 4, Retrieved January 29, 2012 from www.saudiaramcoworld.com.

Damian, L., Dykes, S., Martinez, J., Zwart, L. Final report card: Napoleon Bonaparte. Presented to R. Hernandez, HCHS.

First incidence of black death in Europe and Asia, 1333-1369.  Retrieved January 29, 2012 from http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb/images/maps/decworld/plaguetraderoutes.jpg

Hyde, A., Daniels, H., Zemelman, S. (1998). Best practice: New standards for teaching and learning in America’s schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Jenkins, R., Goldhorn, J., Webb, M. How do you identify rigor in the classroom?  Retrieved February 2, 2012 from http://portal.esc20.net/portal/page/portal/STAAR/Administrators.

Ibeji, M. (2011). Black death. BBC: British History. Retrieved February 2, 2012 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/black_01.shtml.